Achebe, Chinua. Things Fall Apart. Anchor Books: New York, 1959.

Alleman, Allison.  Towards the Elimination of Female Genital Mutilation.  UMI Dissertation Services: Ann Arbor, 1997.

Amadiume, Ifi.  Daughters of the Goddess, Daughters of Imperialism: African Women Struggle for Culture, Power and Democracy.  Zed Books: London, 2000.

Reinventing Africa: Matriarchy, Religion & Culture.  Zed Books: London, 1997.

Amadiume, I.; An-Na'im, A.  The Politics of Memory: Truth, Healing & Social Justice.  London: Zed Books,  2000.

Appiah, K.; Gates, H.L.  Africana: The Encyclopedia of the African and African American Expereince.  Basic Civitas Books: New York, 1999.

Bascom, William. Sixteen Cowries: Yoruba Divination from Africa to the New World. Inidiana University Press: Bloomington, 1980.

Batulukisi, N.; Bruyninx, E.; De Palmer, E.; Jackson, K.; Jordan, M.; Lawal, B.; Karel, N.; Ross, M.; Siegmann, W.; Thompson, B.; & Vaughan, J.H. Hair in African Art and Culture. Sieber, R. & Herreman, F. (ed.). The Museum for African Art: New York, 2000.

Beckwith, C.; Fisher, A.  Passages: Photgraphs in Africa.  Harry N. Abrams Publishers: New York, 2000.

Bennett, Herman L. Africans in Colonial Mexico: Absolutism, Christianity, and Afro-Creole Consciousness, 1570-1640. Indiana University Press: Bloomington, 2003.

Bradford, P. V.; Blume, H. OTA: The Pygmy in the Zoo. St. Martin's Press: New York, 1992.

Charry, Eric.  Mande Music: Traditional and Modern Music of the Maninka and Mandinka of Western Africa.  The University of Chicago Press: Chicago, 2000.

Chomsky, Noam.  Rogue States: The Rule of Force in World Affairs.South End Press, Cambridge, 2000.

Counter, S. Allen and David L. Evans.  I Sought My Brother.  The MIT Press: Cambridge, 1981.

Destexhe, Alain.  Rwanda and Genocide in the Twentieth Century.  New York University Press: New York, 1995.

Diakité, Baba Wagué. The Hatseller and the Monkeys: A West African Folktale. Scholastic Press: New York,1999.

Duncan, Bettina Shell and Ylva Hernlund.  Female “Circumcision” in Africa.  Lynne Rienner, INC.: Colorado, 2000.

The Hunterman and the Crocodile: A West African Folktale. Scholastic Press: New York, 1997.

Eltis, David.  The Rise of African Slavery in the Americas.  Cambridge University Press: New York, 2000.

Ferme, Mariane C.  The Underneath of Things: Violence, History, and the Everyday in Sierra Leone.  The University of California Press: Berkley, 2001.

Freund, Bill.  Insiders and Outsiders: The Indian Working Class of Durban 1910-1990.  Heinemann: Portsmouth, 1995.

Gali, Mary Ann.  Female Circumcision: A Transcultural Study of Attitudes, Identity and Reproductive Health of East African Immigrants.  UMI Dissertation Services: Ann Arbor, 1997.

Gilroy, Paul. The Black Atlantic: Modernity and Double Consciousness. Harvard University Press: Cambridge, 1993.

Getting Away with Murder, Mutilation, and Rape: New Testimony from Sierra Leone.  Human Rights Watch: New York, 1999.

Gourevitch, Philip. We Wish to Inform You that Tomorrow We Will be Killed With Our Families: Stories from Rwanda. Farrar Straus & Giroux: New York, 1998.

Griaule, Marcel. Conversations with Ogotemeli: An Introduction to Dogon Religious Ideas. Oxford University Press: London, 1965.

GruenBaum, Ellen.  The Female Circumcision Controversy: An Anthropological Perspective.  University of Pennsylvania Press: Philadelphia, 2001.

Heywood, Linda M. Central Africans and Cultural Transformations in the American Diaspora. Cambridge University Press: New York, 2002.

Jacobson-Widding, Anita. Red-White-Black as a Mode of Thought: A Study of Triadic Classification by Colours in the Ritual Symbolism and Cognitive Thought of the Peoples of the Lower Congo. Almqvist & Wiksell: Uppsala, 1979.

Kelly, James.  Female Genital Mutilation: A Search for its Origins.  UMI Dissertation Services: Ann Arbor, 1993.

Kibor, Jacob.  Persistence of Female Circumcision Among the Marakwet of Kenya: A Biblical response to a Rite of Passage.  UMI Dissertation Services: Ann Arbor, 1998.

Long, Carolyn Morrow.  Spiritual Merchants: Religion, Magic and Commerce.  The University of Tennessee Press: Knoxville, 2001.

Lunn, Joe.  Memoirs of the Maelstrom: A Senegalese Oral History of the First World War.  Heinemann: Portsmouth, 1999.

MacGaffey, Wyatt.  Kongo Political Culture: The Conceptual Challenge of the Particular.  Indiana University Press: Bloomington, 2000.

Manresa, K.; Koso-Thomas, O.; Ramos Rioja, I.; Serra, D.  The Day Kadi Lost Part of her Life.  Spinifex Press: Melbourne, 1998.

McCulloch, Jock.  Black Peril White Virtue: Sexual Crime in Southern Rhodesia, 1902-1935. Indiana University Press: Bloomington, 2000.

Moreno Vega, Martha.  The Altar of My Soul: The Living Traditions of Santeria.  Ballantine Publishing Group: New York, 2000.

Murray, S.; Roscoe, W. Boy-Wives and Female Husbands: Studies of African  Homosexualities.  St. Martin's Press: New York, 1998.

Nachtwey, James.  Inferno.  Phaidon Press Limited: London, 1999.

Nyangoni, Wellington.  Africa in the United Nations System.  Farleigh Dickinson University Press: Rutherford, 1985.

Pemberton III, John (ed.). Insight and Artistry in African Divination. Smithsonian Institution Press: Washington, 1984.

Phillips, Ruth B. Representing Woman: Sande Masquerades of the Mende of Sierra Leone. Regents of the University of California: Los Angeles, 1995.

Radhika, Mohanram.  Black Body: Women, Colonialism, and Space.  University of Minnesota Press: Minneapolis, 1999. 

Richards, Paul.  Fighting for the Rain Forest: War, Youth & Resources in Sierra Leone.  Heinemann: Portsmouth, 1996.

Saha, Santosh.  Dictionary of Human Rights Advocacy Organizations in Africa.  Greenwood Press: Westport, 1999.

Shermarke, Marian.  Understanding the Canadian Community Context of Female Circumcision.  UMI Dissertation Services: Ann Arbor, 1996.

Silla, Eric.  Peopla are Not the Same: Leprosy and Identity in Twentieth Century Mali.  Heinemann: Portsmouth, 1998.

Snively, Judith.  Female Bodies, Male Politics: Women and the Female Circumcision Controversy in Kenyan Colonial Discourse.  UMI Dissertation Services: Ann Arbor, 1994.

Snowden , Frank.  Before Color Prejudice: The Ancient View of Blacks.  Harvard University Press: Cambridge, 1983.

Spivey, Diane M.  The Peppers, Cracklings, and Knots of Wool Cookbook: The Global Migration of African Cuisine.  State University of the New York Press: Albany, 1999.

Sweet, James H. Recreating Africa: Culture, Kinship, and Religion in the African-Portuguese World, 1441-1770. The University of North Carolina Press: Chapel Hill, 2003.

Thompson, Robert Farris. Flash of the Spirit. Random House Inc.: New York. 1983.

Vansina, Jan.  Living with Africa. The University of Winconsin Press: Madison, 1994. 

Work Projects Administration.  Drums and Shadows: Survival Studies Among the Georgia Coastal Negroes.  The University of Georgia Press: Athens, 1986.