Catalog: Digital Commons at Pace - New Repository Articles
This dissertation attempts to unveil new information concerning intertemporal choice, by trying to find a correlation between personality and the temporal choices that people make. The methodology for doing so is as follows: a survey was distributed and responses were regressed using Ordinary Least Squares (OLS). Given that there were two questions (one formatted using a calendar date and the other using a word format) about intertemporal choice (subjects were asked to choose a certain payoff corresponding to a specific point in time), there were two models constructed. Each model had the following variable structure: the dependent variable was the expected payoff, while the independent variables were gender, grade, and most importantly, the point total corresponding to the questions about personality. The results of the regression were not statistically significant, most likely majorly due to the smaller sample size of 204 observations as well as a possible presence of a sample bias of college students; however, interesting coefficient sign changes in gender and grade occurred between the two models. Furthermore, the coefficient sign on both models for the point total variable was negative, showing that the more self-interested someone is (according to a personality test), the more present-gain oriented they seem to be. A repetition of the experiment on a grander scale will either confirm or deny these variables’ role in deciding expected payoffs involving intertemporal choices.
Exploring the Role of Raising Children upon the Association between Perfectionism and Marital Satisfaction
Although every model of marital satisfaction includes individual personality traits as a pertinent factor in determining levels of satisfaction, few studies have directly examined how perfectionistic traits affect the quality of intimate relationships. Additionally, decades of research has found that marital quality decreases while couples are raising children. This study examined the relationships between three different dimensions of perfectionism (self-oriented, other-oriented, and socially prescribed perfectionism) and marital satisfaction, and whether these relationships are moderated by whether one is raising children. The study deemed individuals to be raising children when they had one or more children living with them and those who did not have children or had children who were no longer living with them were considered to not be raising children. I hypothesized that there would be a negative relationship between socially prescribed perfectionism and marital satisfaction, and that self-oriented perfectionism and other-oriented perfectionism would not have significant relationships with marital satisfaction. I also hypothesized that those raising children would report significantly lower levels of marital satisfaction than those not raising children. Further, I hypothesized that the negative association between socially prescribed perfectionism and martial satisfaction would be stronger for those raising children compared to those not raising children, and that the relationship between self-oriented perfectionism and marital satisfaction would be significant and negative among people raising children, but nonsignificant among those not raising children. Raising children was not expected to moderate the relationship between other-oriented perfectionism and marital satisfaction. Participants were 383 married or cohabitating individuals over the age of 18. They were given questionnaires to assess their levels of self-oriented, other-oriented, and socially prescribed perfectionism and marital satisfaction. Findings indicated that all three dimensions of perfectionism were relevant to the quality of intimate relationships. The interpersonal dimensions of perfectionism, whether characterized by expecting one's partner to be perfect or believing one's significant other is expecting perfection (other-oriented and socially prescribed perfectionism respectively), predicted higher levels of marital dissatisfaction. Expecting perfection of oneself (self-oriented perfectionism) was associated with higher levels of satisfaction in one's relationship. Consistent with previous studies, raising children was negatively correlated with marital satisfaction. Furthermore, raising children was found to moderate the relationship between socially prescribed perfectionism and marital satisfaction, such that the negative association between socially prescribed perfectionism and marital satisfaction was stronger for those raising children compared to those not raising children, although significant for both groups. Raising children did not moderate the relationship between self- or other-oriented perfectionism and marital satisfaction. Overall, this study highlights the importance of addressing perfectionism in the domain of intimate relationships. Findings indicate that expecting one's partner to be perfect or believing one's partner is expecting one to be perfect will negatively affect one's satisfaction in his/her relationship. This study supports the need for treatment interventions for those whose perfectionistic tendencies are interpersonal in nature and for couples during and throughout the transition to parenthood. Future studies can expand on the current study by including dyads and parent-child relationships to ascertain how one's perfectionistic tendencies affects his/her loved ones.^
Screening for Developmental Delay in At-Risk Children: Ages and Stages. Questionnaire in an Adolescent Primary Care Clinic
The current study examined the rates of developmental delay and classifications made using the Ages and Stages: Third Edition (ASQ-3) at free primary care clinic geared toward the treatment of adolescents and their children in and around New York City. This sample may serve as a model for primary care clinics as they comply with the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) and see an influx of patients due to the Affordable Care, as many at-risk patient's and their children may now be seen by service providers. An archival data set containing scores and classifications from the ASQ-3 for 140 parent-child dyads was examined; average parental age was 20.9 years, and children ranged in age from one to 68 months. Raw scores were presented in five developmental areas (Communication, Gross Motor, Fine Motor, Problem Solving, and Personal Social) and children were classified as "below" the cutoff, in the "monitoring" area, or "above" the cutoff in each developmental area. Significant differences between all groups were found, suggesting that ASQ-3 can be used to make referrals and inform service provision. Significant differences were observed) between the research and normative samples in the areas of communication, fine motor, and problem solving domains. Observed rates of children falling "below" the cutoff in this population were much greater than those observed in the general population. A total of approximately 23% of participants were "below" in at least one developmental area, rates within single developmental areas ranged from approximately 4% to 10%. These results highlight the importance of providing services to this population exhibiting high incidence of developmental delay and contribute to growing body of knowledge of at-risk populations.^
Literature has shown body dissatisfaction to be a significant risk factor in the development of eating pathology. Recent theoretical models have emphasized the additional importance of emotion regulation in predicting the development of eating pathology and related body dissatisfaction. The aim of the present study is to evaluate and explore the relationship between of emotion dysregulation and body dissatisfaction, a common concern found to predict eating disorders in adolescents and emerging adults. A set of emotion regulation (i.e., non-acceptance of emotional responses, difficulties engaging in goal-directed, impulse control difficulties, lack of emotional awareness, limited access to emotion regulation strategies, and lack of emotional clarity), body dissatisfaction, demographic (i.e., age, gender, ethnicity, relationship status), and physical (i.e., body mass index) factors were assessed in 235 young adults. Findings reveal that body dissatisfaction and emotion regulation difficulties overall are related in this population. In particular, individuals with limited access to emotion regulation strategies and lack of emotional clarity are most likely to experience impaired body satisfaction. Increased body mass index is also related to higher body dissatisfaction as well as a lack of emotional awareness. Gender differences were found, and while females experience significantly more body dissatisfaction than males, males experienced significantly more emotional dysregulation, and specifically non-acceptance of emotional responses, impulse control difficulties, and limited access to emotion regulation strategies, than females. Results support the contention that emotional dysregulation, combined with increased weight status, is related to body dissatisfaction^
The impact of an educational technology facilitator on technology and digital resource integration: A case study of three Thinkfinity demonstration schools
Abstract not available.^
Public schools learn about their students' personal lives in many ways. Some are passive: a teacher observes a student kissing someone, or overhears a conversation among friends. But schools also engage in more active information-gathering about students' personal lives, through surveys and informal conversations between students and teachers, administrators, school psychologists, counselors, coaches, and other personnel. This Article explores the competing privacy considerations that result from such encounters. Once schools have learned highly personal information about their students, does it violate those students' privacy rights to disclose that information to their parents? Or does keeping the information secret violate the parents' constitutional right to direct the upbringing of their children, often framed as a privacy right of its own? And what are the limits on schools' ability to probe for such information in the first place?
This Article brings together the parallel lines of cases addressing these questions, showing how students' and parents' privacy interests converge in the context of schools' extraction of students' personal information, only to be pitted against each other regarding the disclosure of such information. Moreover, it explores the underlying normative question that links the extraction and disclosure issues: how should schools approach their-to some extent, inevitable-role in students' personal and family lives? This Article argues that recognizing stronger limitations on schools' ability to probe into students' personal lives, while giving schools broad discretion as to how to handle such information provided that it has been legitimately obtained, is not only consistent with both of the constitutional privacy interests at stake, but also good policy.