Catalog: Digital Commons at Pace - New Repository Articles
Parenting Stress in the Dyad: Associations Among Parenting Stress, Parent Role Perceptions, Infant Temperament, and Mother-Infant Emotional Availability
The current study investigated the relationships among parenting stress, quality of mother-infant interactions, infant temperament, and parent role perceptions. The study further examined the moderating role of parenting stress. A sample of 35 mother-infant dyads participated in the current study. Parenting stress was measured using the Parenting Stress Index (Abidin, 1995), infant temperament was assessed using the Infant Behavior Questionnaire, Revised (Gartstein & Rothbart, 2003), and parent role perceptions were measured using the Parent Behavior Importance Questionnaire (PBIQ-R) and the Frequency Questionnaire (PBFQ; Mowder, 2005). Quality of mother-infant interactions was assessed and coded utilizing the Emotional Availability Scales, 4th Edition (EAS; Biringen, 2008). Mother-infant pairs participated in a 20-minute free play session that was videotaped and coded using the EAS. Components of parenting stress were observed to be significantly correlated with EA Sensitivity, EA Non-hostility, and EA Child Responsiveness. Parenting stress was found to be significantly correlated with negative behaviors of infant temperament. Furthermore, overall and component parts of parenting stress demonstrated significant correlations with parent role perceptions. Results found a significant interaction effect between parenting stress and parent role perceptions in predicting EA Sensitivity; however, these findings were contrary to hypotheses. Higher levels of total parenting stress strengthened the observed significant relationship between positive parent role perceptions and EA Sensitivity. Implications of the current study and future areas of research are discussed. ^ Keywords: mother-infant interactions, parenting stress, emotional availability, infant temperament, maternal perceptions^
Responding to Challenge: Comparing Nonprofit Programmes and Pedagogy at Universities in the United Kingdom, Spain, and the United States
As the public sectors of many countries come to terms with the implications of major challenges, from reduced budgets and changes in the nature of public-sector employment, it is appropriate to reflect on the nature of nonprofit education and consider it in the context of management and business education in the public and private sectors. Until now, published research on nonprofit programmes in higher education has typically been focused on individual countries or types of programmes. This paper reviews the background of management education and compares university-level nonprofit education in the United Kingdom, Spain and the United States. We find that the number and types of academic programmes off ered are aligned with both the size of the sector and the sector function in each country
Prominent social entrepreneurship centers and programs in North America, Europe, and Asia are examined in terms of their position in the institutional structure, initial and additional funding, teaching initiatives, research achievements, and outreach activities. We computed performance by using a transparent coding scheme. Low correlations with institutional endowment and social entrepreneurship center/program performance offer evidence of discriminant validity of our ranking approach. Performance scores were used to rank-order social entrepreneurship centers/programs. Such an approach to examine social entrepreneurship center/program performance goes beyond the perception-based ranking instruments that popular magazines employ to evaluate subject-specific rankings. We examined data from 28 centers/programs and, in addition to an unweighted approach to ranking, we computed regression-weighted ranking of these centers/programs. The ranking instrument has strong discriminant validity and moderate inter-item reliability. With quickly growing numbers of centers/programs and associated faculty, additional attention and evaluation may be needed for related activities including role modeling, student mentoring by practitioners, and resultant social ventures. Implications for social entrepreneurship centers/programs, social entrepreneurs, social entrepreneurship scholars, and funders are discussed.
The ‘third sector’ in the United States is unique, including numerous types of organizations ranging from social enterprises, charities, and nonprofits. The history and evolution of the term social entrepreneurship has of course influence the types of enterprises included under this umbrella. In this chapter, we explore the role of social entrepreneurship in the U.S., its related impacts, both social and economic, and gauge its role in U.S. society and as a job creator. Finally, we examine the resiliency associated with the nonprofit sector and its hybrid organizations with close focus on their performance during the Great Recession, a period of time that saw growth in these organizations whilst the for-profit sector suffered.
What makes some entrepreneurs persist in their venture efforts while others quit? Self-efficacy has robustly been found to drive persistence, yet recent work suggests that affect, in particular entrepreneurial passion, may also enhance persistence. We empirically examine the possibility that the long-standing relationship between self-efficacy and persistence might be mediated by entrepreneurial passion. Using data from 129 entrepreneurs, we find that the self-efficacy to persistence relationship is mediated by passion for inventing and for founding but not by passion for developing firms. The passion of entrepreneurs appears to help explain the relationship between entrepreneurial self-efficacy and sustained entrepreneurial action.
Much attention has been paid to China’s determination to exert its influence over the East and South China seas using both political and military power. The final few weeks of 2013 saw a rapid deterioration of the diplomatic goodwill that China had built with its maritime neighbours over the past several decades, threatening regional stability and risking an arms race with the U.S., Japan, and Southeast Asia. This article draws on some snapshots of the latest sovereignty disputes in the East and South China seas and the bilateral ties across the Taiwan Strait to discuss the continuities and breakpoints in China’s strategic outreach in a multipolar world. It argues that the ability of China to pursue security interests in its maritime frontiers is largely contingent upon many circumstantial factors.
Along with other affective and emotional dimensions, passion is at the heart of entrepreneurship. Yet past research on entrepreneurial passion (EP) has been hindered by the lack of a sound measurement instrument. Through a series of empirical studies conducted with samples from relevant populations, we develop and validate an instrument to capture EP and its inherent dimensions. We show that the task-specific dimensions of EP (intense positive feelings toward the domains of inventing, founding and developing, and the centrality of these domains to entrepreneurs' self-identity) are conceptually and empirically distinct from one another, and from other emotions and cognitions known to play a role in entrepreneurship. Our theory and results indicate that proper measurement of entrepreneurial passion incorporates the interaction between entrepreneurs' feelings and identity centrality for each domain. We discuss the implications of our model, instrument and findings for future research on the affective components of innovation and entrepreneurship. We also develop specific guidelines for using our validated instrument in future research.
This study examines the role of passion among entrepreneurs. In particular, the authors integrate identity theory with the literature surrounding passion to investigate the possible pathways through which entrepreneurial identities might influence passion, as well as the relationship between entrepreneurs’ passion and behavior. Structural equation modeling of responses from 221 entrepreneurs suggests that passion rises and falls in connection with entrepreneurial identity centrality and, furthermore, that passion is associated with individual entrepreneurial behavior and entrepreneurial self-efficacy. This research provides a starting point for investigating the factors that may impact the development of entrepreneurs’ passion as well as the specific mechanisms through which passion energizes entrepreneurial action.
This paper develops and tests a theory of entrepreneurial passion. We draw from the literature on identity theory to investigate the influence of entrepreneurial identities on entrepreneurial passion, as well as the relationship of entrepreneurial passion to behavior. Empirical analyses of responses from 247 entrepreneurs confirm that entrepreneurial passion rises and falls in connection with entrepreneurial identity centrality. Moreover, entrepreneurial passion influences entrepreneurial behavior through multiple pathways involving intrinsic motivation, self-efficacy and positive affect. This research provides new insights into the factors that impact entrepreneurial passion as well as the mechanisms through which that passion stokes the fire of entrepreneurial action.
Nonprofit organizations rely upon volunteers to facilitate their missions of meeting critical community needs. Since 2006, on average, 61.9 million Americans or 26.4 percent of the adult population volunteered every year through organizations delivering 8.1 billion hours of service worth approximately $162 billion to America’s communities (Bureau of Labor Statistics 2012; Corporation for National and Community Service 2010). Most recent data released by The Bureau of Labor in 2013 further suggest between September 2011 and September 2012 approximately 64.5 million people volunteered via an organization at least once. In light of high unemployment, donor fatigue, and slow economic growth, it is also anticipated that nonprofit reliance on volunteers will continue to increase (Salamon and Spence 2009). As cautioned by Doherty and Mayer (2003) when revenue sources are compromised as a result of an ailing economy, continued devolution, and severe budget cuts at all levels of government, nonprofits will increasingly be compelled to cope in new ways to achieve their missions. Therefore, as nonprofit organizations continue to face compromised revenue sources due to severe federal funding cuts and reduced donor support, managers will be compelled more than ever before to utilize their volunteers with fewer resources. However, the words of Lipsky and Smith (1989/90) and again by Brudney and Duncombe (1992) still ring true today: volunteers are not free, nor are nonprofit managers always equipped to make the most of their volunteers (Urban Institute 2004; Yanay and Yanay 2008). Furthering the findings of prior research (Levine and D’Agostino 2012), the purpose of this study is to identify the specific practices that emerge among volunteer managers in human service organizations during challenging economic times. Given that volunteer management encompasses a range of complex activities, such as recruiting, coordinating, leading, supporting, administering and organizing volunteers as well as strategic oversight and management of volunteer programs this study introduces complexity theory as a lens for understanding volunteer management capacity during challenging economic times. Although business (Curley 2012) and legal studies (Hornstein 2005) have utilized complexity as a guiding theory, the framework used in this study is a unique and important contribution to the nonprofit volunteer management literature. This study incorporates complexity theory as a means to frame a model of volunteer management that offers nonprofit chief executives, managers and funders a new perspective on how to successfully cope with volunteers and strengthen capacity during these challenging times. First, literature reviewing nonprofit and volunteer management capacity building is examined. The paper then introduces complexity theory as a basis for understanding volunteer management capacity. We then proceed with the methods section and discussion of key findings. We conclude with study limitations and areas for future research.
The credibility and veracity of an environmental claim depends on a high degree of transparency, clarity, and trust. Businesses that utilize ecolabels to market the environmental performance of their seafood products often turn to third-party certifications to minimize the potential for greenwashing and provide a level of verification and independence. Others rely on a riskier approach by developing their own self-declared or first-party ecolabels. Seafood retailers and suppliers considering the creation and use of an ecolabel, certification, or seal to be used in the marketing of seafood products should ensure compliance with applicable Food and Drug Administration and United States Department of Agriculture labeling rules. Furthermore, entities pursuing self-declared or first-party seafood ecolabels should consult the Federal Trade Commission's Green Guides, closely follow developments in greenwashing litigation under federal and state consumer protection and unfair competition laws, and heed the early advice of legal experts in the field.
Contesting Disclaimer-of-Reliance Clauses by Efficiency, Free Will, and Conscience: Staving Off Caveat Emptor
This Article hopes to make evident two trends seemingly in conflict. The first trend is toward raising the standards of probity and veridicality in contractual relations toward greater accountability and liability on market actors operating outside traditional bounds. The first is expressed by new rules that: require good faith and fair dealing between parties; ensure sellers are obligated to disclose material facts about a property otherwise unavailable to buyers; and make wrongdoing parties liable to non-parties who foreseeably relied on the wrongdoers' contractual undertakings. This trend promises to avert injury, achieve efficiency, and seems to accord with society's evolving notions of fairness.
The second trend, exemplified in Teers, counters the first. Because humans are innately self-interested, entrepreneurs (and rascals) have devised techniques to avoid these new levels and kinds of exposure to potential liability for non-disclosure and to non-parties. They have employed market and contract strategies that purport to shift to the other party the onus of uncovering the truth--which might be buried under layers of misrepresentations and that limit non-parties' right to rely on contract promises. The effect is to enable a market actor to contract away liability for intentional wrongdoing by the simple expedients of “as is” and “disclaimer-of-reliance” clauses--the result in Teers. This is troubling in a number of respects. First, the clauses undercut the fundamental character of enforceable contracts being the product of free will. Indeed, the first requirement of contract formation is a meeting of minds. Fraud, ostensibly camouflaged by disclaimers, negates the unknowing party's free will. Second, such liability-avoidance techniques, although ostensibly consistent with the contracting parties' free will, disturb the markets because of the externalities. Absent the truth about the quality or condition of the property, buyers enter into transactions, or pay too much for property unsuitable, or useless, for its intended purpose. Undisclosed defects present the potential for injury to third parties. A buyer's costs of inspection and discovery are greater than a seller's costs of disclosure. Lastly, the exploitative use of these clauses disturbs our sensibilities, offends the law's conscience, and debases not just the parties, but society at large.
Courts' responses to these opportunistic maneuvers have been disparate. Some courts enforce the clauses without much hesitation, focusing on the venerable values of freedom and certainty of contract, chastising buyers for their gullibility. Others categorically outlaw the clauses, expressing consternation at conduct that seems abjectly fraudulent and exploitative. Yet others appear to be inclined to uphold agreements that are freely entered into, although these courts take a case-by-case approach, making fine distinctions based on subtleties in the clause's language, which might allow an injured party relief. These trends must be examined in context, historical and contemporary, to determine whether they reveal a rational response to the self-interested choices of contract participants and whether these responses must be bolstered to ensure that responsibility for unrealized expectations or harm is fairly allocated among the parties. In the end, this Article proposes that disclaimer-of-reliance clauses should be presumptively unenforceable, as they offend current market morality and public policy.
Part II will trace the evolution of thought on market transactions and contracting. Part III discusses the shift in thinking about contract. Part IV reviews limits on contracting imposed by law and policy. Part V discusses the imperative of the law's conscience, outlining a framework for evaluating disclaimer-of-reliance clauses. This Article ends with conclusions and comments on how legal relations have, and must, change in the interests of fairness and efficiency in real estate markets.
This Article is adapted from Chapter Three of John R. Nolon, Protecting the Environment Through Land Use Law: Standing Ground, published in 2014 by ELI Press. The book updates and expands on the author’s previous work, describing in detail how localities are responding to new challenges, including the imperative that they adapt to and help mitigate climate change and create sustainable neighborhoods. This Article outlines a comprehensive framework for understanding how traditional local land use authority can be used to preserve natural resources and environmental functions at the community level.
This occasional paper has three essays written by professors from Pace University and Nanjing Normal University that address a host of structural challenges facing China and India in pursuit of sustainable development in the early twenty-first century. Pan Zhen gives a critical overview of China’s economic policies, and finds the top-down development model to be fraught with tensions. Joseph Tse-Hei Lee argues that the ability of China to pursue sustainable growth and social betterment is largely contingent upon many circumstantial factors, especially the negative attributes of globalization and the rise of domestic discontents. Satish K. Kolluri shifts the focus of discussion to the electoral victory of Narendra Modi in India, and examines the implications of the rise of Modi in domestic and regional politics. These essays throw light on the political and socioeconomic trajectories of China and India. Since both countries have significantly liberalized their economies in recent decades, the unprecedented expansion of their capabilities and influences is a complex phenomenon, rooted in the context of particular temporal and spatial settings, and the need to accommodate endogenous and exogenous forces of change.